So Sine, Cosine, and Tangent are all used a lot in Hopscotch a lot, but I am going to teach you how they work in mathematics, and maybe that will help you understand in Hopscotch.
Warning: If you have not taken Algebra I, some of this might be confusing to you, fair warning!
Ok, so first things first, what is Sine, Cosine, and Tangent? The answer is that they are all forms of equations used to help find proportional triangles, or in simpler terms, it just helps you find what triangles are similiar. However, the equations only work with Right Triangles, and are mainly used in 30/60 Right Triangles, which are Right Traingles that have angles measuring 90, 60, and 30 degrees.
Refer to this image:
Sine is a proportion you get when you divide the Opposite side by the Hypotenuse. If we were to call the top angle of this triangle (the 30 degree angle) A, sinA would be looking at the opposite side of angle a, which in this case is leg X, which would be divided by the hypotenuse, which is 2x. So the proportion for this triangle would be 1/2.
Cosine is similiar form of Sine, in which you divide the Adjacent leg by the Hypotenuse. In the case of this triangle that would be x times √3 divided by 2x, which is roughly 8.66.
Tangent is weirder, because the Hypotenuse is not included in the equation. It goes opposite side divided by the adjacent side. tanA for this triangle would be x divided by x√3, which would just be √3.
There is also Reverse Tangent, which is just Adjacent divided by the Opposite side.